Glossary Indoor Air Pollution and Health Indoor Air Quality IAQ refers to the air quality within and around buildings and structures, especially as it relates to the health and comfort of building occupants. Understanding and controlling common pollutants indoors can help reduce your risk of indoor health concerns. Health effects from indoor air pollutants may be experienced soon after exposure or, possibly, years later.
Abstract Introduction Heart disease and cancer are the first and second leading causes of death in the United States. Age-standardized death rates risk have declined since the s for heart disease and for cancer since the s, whereas the overall number of heart disease deaths declined and cancer deaths increased.
We analyzed mortality data to evaluate and project the effect of risk reduction, population growth, and aging on the number of heart disease and cancer deaths to the year Methods We used mortality data, population estimates, and population projections to estimate and predict heart disease and cancer deaths from through and to apportion changes in deaths resulting from population risk, growth, and aging.
Results We predicted that from throughthe number of heart disease deaths would decrease We predicted that cancer would become the leading cause of death aroundalthough sex-specific crossover years varied.
Conclusion Risk of death declined more steeply for heart disease than cancer, offset the increase in heart disease deaths, and partially offset the increase in cancer deaths resulting from demographic changes over the past 4 decades.
If current trends continue, cancer will become the leading cause of death by Top Introduction For most of the last century, the leading cause of death in the United States, as measured by actual deaths, was heart disease, followed by cancer 1.
Cancer overtook heart disease to become the leading cause of death in 1 state Alaska in2 states in8 states inand 23 states inalthough the trend slowed or stopped in recent years 2,3. Declining death rates indicate that the overall risk to the population of dying from heart disease or cancer decreased.
However, age-standardized death rates do not convey the full extent of the burden of these diseases, because they effectively remove the influence of demographic changes related to population growth and changing age structure. Although the age-standardized death rate for heart disease began to decline in the late s and for all cancers combined some 20 years later, the overall number of heart disease deaths declined and the number of cancer deaths increased 1,4.
The number of deaths is a function of the population risk of being diagnosed and dying from that cause and the size and age structure of the population. The risk of death from heart disease and cancer generally increases with age, and over the past several decades the US population increased, particularly in the age group 65 years or older 5.
These demographic changes are forecast to continue into this century as the cohort born after World War II, with increased longevity than earlier cohorts, enters the age groups most at risk of dying from heart disease and cancer.
The objective of this study was to use mortality data, current population estimates, and population projections to predict age-standardized death rates and death counts for heart disease and cancer fromaround the peak of heart disease death rates riskthrough and to apportion changes in deaths resulting from population risk reduction, population growth, and population aging ie, shift in age distribution toward older ages and increased longevity.
The underlying cause of death was assigned according to the International Classification of Disease ICD in use at the time of death, converted to ICD International Classification of Disease, Revision 10and recoded to ensure comparability over time 7. For these analyses, we defined heart disease as rheumatic heart disease I00—I09hypertensive heart disease I11hypertensive heart and kidney disease I13acute myocardial infarction I21—I22other ischemic or coronary heart disease I20, I23—I25atrial fibrillation I48other arrhythmias I47, I49heart failure I50and other heart disease I26—I, I51 ; we defined cancer as malignant neoplasms ICD Population estimates and projections were used as the denominators in rate calculations.
We estimated trends in death rates from through using joinpoint regression Joinpoint Trend Analysis Software, version 4.
We used the terms increase or decrease to describe significant trends and stable to describe nonsignificant trends.The authority on the business side of cancer research, the Cancer Letter has been publishing for 40 years.
The sister publication, the Clinical Cancer Letter, dives deeper into developments in the world of cancer research. Alternate Text: The figure above shows the percentage of opioid distribution accounted for by methadone prescribed for pain, by state in the United States during In , methadone accounted for % of all the morphine milligram equivalents of all major opioids tracked by the Drug Enforcement Administration's Automation of Reports and Consolidated Orders System (ARCOS) .
South Asians (from Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, the Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka) make up one quarter of the world’s population and are one of the fastest-growing ethnic groups in the United States.
The scientists, from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, say that finding a way to stop cancer cells from sticking to new sites could interfere with metastatic disease, and halt the growth. The proportion of deaths in each age group that involved an opioid was calculated using opioid-related death data and all-cause mortality data.
In the United States, the use of cannabis for medical purposes is legal in 33 states, plus the territories of Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Northern Mariana Islands, and the District of Columbia, as of November Fourteen other states have more restrictive laws limiting THC content, for the purpose of allowing access to products that are rich in cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive component.