Lamellar armour worn by native Siberians and Eskimos In Canada and Greenland, the term Eskimo has largely been supplanted by the term Inuit. As a result, the Canadian government usage has replaced the locally defunct term Eskimo with Inuit Inuk in singular. The language is often called Inuktitutthough other local designations are also used. Despite the ICC's decision to adopt the term Inuit, this was never accepted by the Yupik peoples, who likened it to calling all Native American Indians Navajo simply because the Navajo felt that that's what all tribes should be called.
Native Americans form an ethnic group only in a very general sense. In the East, centuries of coexistence with whites has led to some degree of intermarriage and assimilation and to various patterns of stable adjustment.
In the West the hasty expansion of… Native American culture areas Comparative studies are an essential component of all scholarly analyses, whether the topic under study is human society, fine art, paleontology, or chemistry; the similarities and differences found in the entities under consideration help to organize and direct research programs and exegeses.
The comparative study of cultures falls largely in the domain of anthropologywhich often uses a typology known as the culture area approach to organize comparisons across cultures.
The culture area approach was delineated at the turn of the 20th century and continued to frame discussions of peoples and cultures into the 21st century. A culture area is a geographic region where certain cultural traits have generally co-occurred; for instance, in North America between the 16th and 19th centuries, the Northwest Coast culture area was characterized by traits such as salmon fishing, woodworking, large villages or towns, and hierarchical social organization.
The specific number of culture areas delineated for Native America has been somewhat variable because regions are sometimes subdivided or conjoined. The 10 culture areas discussed below are among the most commonly used—the Arctic, the Subarctic, the Northeast, the Southeast, the Plains, the Southwest, the Great Basin, California, the Northwest Coast, and the Plateau.
Notably, some scholars prefer to combine the Northeast and Southeast into one Eastern Woodlands culture area or the Plateau and Great Basin into a single Intermontane culture area. Each section below considers the location, climate, environmentlanguages, tribes, and common cultural characteristics of the area before it was heavily colonized.
Prehistoric and post-Columbian Native American cultures are discussed in subsequent sections of this article. A discussion of the indigenous peoples of the Americas as a whole is found in American Indian. The Arctic This region lies near and above the Arctic Circle and includes the northernmost parts of present-day Alaska and Canada.
The topography is relatively flat, and the climate is characterized by very cold temperatures for most of the year.
Distribution of Arctic peoples. The Arctic peoples of North America relied upon hunting and gathering. Winters were harsh, but the long hours of summer sunlight supported an explosion of vegetation that in turn drew large herds of caribou and other animals to the inland North.
On the coasts, sea mammals and fish formed the bulk of the diet. Small mobile bands were the predominant form of social organization; band membership was generally based on kinship and marriage see also Sidebar: The Difference Between a Tribe and a Band.
Dome-shaped houses were common; they were sometimes made of snow and other times of timber covered with earth. Fur clothing, dog sleds, and vivid folklore, mythology, and storytelling traditions were also important aspects of Arctic cultures.
The topography is relatively flat, the climate is cool, and the ecosystem is characterized by a swampy and coniferous boreal forest taiga ecosystem. Distribution of American Subarctic cultures. Their traditional languages are in the Athabaskan and Algonquian families.
Small kin-based bands were the predominant form of social organization, although seasonal gatherings of larger groups occurred at favoured fishing locales. Moose, caribou, beavers, waterfowl, and fish were taken, and plant foods such as berries, roots, and sap were gathered.
In winter people generally resided in snug semisubterranean houses built to withstand extreme weather; summer allowed for more mobility and the use of tents or lean-tos.
Snowshoes, toboggans, and fur clothing were other common forms of material culture. See also American Subarctic peoples.
The topography is generally rolling, although the Appalachian Mountains include some relatively steep slopes. The climate is temperate, precipitation is moderate, and the predominant ecosystem is the deciduous forest. There is also extensive coastline and an abundance of rivers and lakes.
Distribution of Northeast Indians.
The traditional languages of the Northeast are largely of the Iroquoian and Algonquian language families. Most Northeastern peoples engaged in agriculture, and for them the village of a few dozen to a few hundred persons was the most important social and economic unit in daily life.
Groups that had access to reliably plentiful wild foods such as wild ricesalmon, or shellfish generally preferred to live in dispersed hamlets of extended families.
Several villages or hamlets formed a tribe, and groups of tribes sometimes organized into powerful confederacies.
These alliances were often very complex political organizations and generally took their name from the most powerful member tribe, as with the Iroquois Confederacy. Cultivated corn maizebeans, squash, and weedy seed-bearing plants such as Chenopodium formed the economic base for farming groups.
All northeastern peoples took animals including deer, elk, moose, waterfowl, turkeys, and fish. Houses were wickiups wigwams or longhouses ; both house types were constructed of a sapling framework that was covered with rush matting or sheets of bark.
Other common aspects of culture included dugouts made of the trunks of whole trees, birchbark canoes, clothing made of pelts and deerskins, and a variety of medicine societies.American Indians and Alaska Natives: Health Disparities Overview The phrase American Indian and Alaska Native refers to people descended from any of the original peoples of North and South America (including Central America) and who maintain.
This is a reasonably wide ranging introduction to the native people of Alaska. We start with a brief survey of the landscape of Alaska. Each of the six main groups of native Alaskans is identified, and placed in their traditional Alaskan homelands. The editors are not clear how many official exhibits at the AYP Exposition featured the Philippines.
As shown in magenta color on the map, there were at least two, the Philippines & Hawaii Building and the War Department's Philippines Building, one south and the other east of .
The name they call themselves is Inuit, or "the people." Culturally and linguistically distinct from Native Americans of the lower 48 states, as well as from the Athabaskan people of Alaska, the Inuit are closely related to the Mongoloid peoples of eastern Asia.
To understand Canadian native art or for that matter North American Indian art it helps to have an appreciation of where it was fashioned, the lifestyle of its maker, the aesthetic values of the society and more than a smidgeon of information about the spiritual beliefs embedded in the culture.
ALABAMA LANGUAGE Official Language of the Alabama-Coushatta Tribe of Texas. Over "" (U.S. Census - Supplementary Table - Native North American Languages - Conducted - Released December ) Speakers in the U.S. Writing System: Latin .