One has to be careful with "ism" words. They often have both loose meanings and strict meanings. And sometimes multiple meanings of each type.
The paradigm[ edit ] Psychology and behaviorism[ edit ] Watson named the approach behaviorism as a form of revolution against the then prevalent Behaviorism theory of introspection to study the mind. Introspection was subjective and variable, not a source of objective evidence, and the mind consisted of an inferred entity that could never be observed.
He insisted psychology had to be based on objective observation of behavior and the objective observation of the environmental events that cause behavior. As one example, the concept of intelligence is inferred, not observed, and thus intelligence and intelligence tests are not considered systematically in behaviorism.
However, PB considers IQ tests measure important behaviors that predict later school performance and Behaviorism theory is composed of learned repertoires of such behaviors.
Joining the knowledge of behaviorism and intelligence testing yields concepts and research concerning what intelligence is behaviorally, what causes intelligence, as well as how intelligence can be increased. Basic principles[ edit ] The different behaviourisms also differ with respect to basic principles.
Staats, however, notes that food was used by Pavlov to elicit a positive emotional response in his classical conditioning and Thorndike Edward Thorndike used food as the reward reinforcer that strengthened a motor response in what came to be called operant conditioning, thus emotion-eliciting stimuli are also reinforcing stimuli.
The behaviorists whose work centered on that development treated differently the relationship of the two types of conditioning.
Since Pavlov used a food stimulus to elicit an emotional response and Thorndike used food as a reward reinforcer to strengthen a particular motor response, whenever food is used both types of conditioning thus take place.
It also means that any stimulus that is paired with food will come to have those two functions. Language[ edit ] This difference between the two behaviorisms can be seen clearly in their theories of Behaviorism theory. Staats, extending prior theory   indicates that a large number of words elicit either a positive or negative emotional response because of prior classical conditioning.
As such they should transfer their emotional response to anything with which they are paired. PB provides evidence this is the case. They will serve as rewards and punishments in learning other behaviors,  and they also serve to elicit either approach or avoidance behavior.
Each case depends upon words eliciting an emotional response. PB treats various aspects of language, from its original development in children to its role in intelligence and in abnormal behavior,    and backs this up with basic and applied study.
His theory paper in the journal Behavior Therapy  helped introduce cognitive language behavior therapy to the behavioral field. For example, there is a series of studies of the first learning of reading with preschoolers    and also a series studying and training dyslexic adolescent children.
Staats began studies to analyze cases of important human behaviors in basic and applied ways in In he analyzed dyslexia and introduced his token reinforcer system later called the token economy along with his teaching method and materials for treating the disorder.
When his daughter Jenny was born in he began to study and to produce her language, emotional, and sensory-motor development. When she was a year and a half old he began teaching her number concepts, and then reading six months later, using his token reinforcer system, as he recorded on audiotape.
Following that the second Staats YouTube video records him beginning teaching his three-year-old son with the reading learning and counting method he developed in with his daughter. This film also shows a graduate assistant working with a culturally deprived four-year-old learning reading and writing numbers and counting, participating voluntarily.
The Staats YouTube video number 3 has additional cases of these usually delayed children voluntarily learning much ahead of time these cognitive repertoires that prepare them for school. This group of 11 children gained an average of 11 points in IQ and advanced significantly on a child development measure as they also learned to like the learning situation.
Staats published the first study in this series in and describes his later studies and his more general conception in his book. He shows they are the foundations for being intelligent and doing well on entering school.
There are new studies showing that parents who talk to their children more have children with advanced language development, school success, and intelligence measures. The two together show powerfully the importance of early child learning. Staats also applied his approach in fathering his own children and employed his findings in constructing conception of human behavior and human nature.
His position is that children are the young of the human species that has a body that can make an infinity of different behaviors. The human species also has a nervous system and brain of billion neurons that can learn in marvelous complexity.
Analytical or logical behaviorism is a theory within philosophy about the meaning or semantics of mental terms or concepts. It says that the very idea of a mental state or condition is the idea of a behavioral disposition or family of behavioral tendencies, evident in how a . Methodological behaviorism is a normative theory about the scientific conduct of psychology. It claims that psychology should concern itself with the behavior of organisms (human and nonhuman animals). Psychology should not concern itself with mental states or events or with constructing internal information processing accounts of behavior. Behavior modification is a set of therapies / techniques based on operant conditioning (Skinner, , ). The main principle comprises changing environmental events that are related to a person's behavior.
This conception makes parenting central in the child's development, supported by many studies in behavior analysis, and offers knowledge to parents in raising their children. Personality[ edit ] Staats  describes humans great variability in behavior, across different people. Those individual differences are consistent in different life situations and typify people.
Those differences also tend to run in families. Personality conceived in that way remains an inference, based on how people behave, but with no evidence of what personality is.
More successful has been the measurement of personality. There are tests of intelligence for example. No internal organ of intelligence has been found, and no genes either.Behaviorism is a learning theory that only focuses on objectively observable behaviors and discounts any independent activities of the mind.
Behavior theorists define learning as nothing more than the acquisition of new behavior based on environmental conditions. Psychological behaviorism is a form of behaviorism – a major theory within psychology which holds that generally, human behaviors are learned.
The theory is constructed to advance from basic animal learning principles to deal with all types of human behavior, including personality, culture, and human evolution.
Behaviorism is a learning theory that only focuses on objectively observable behaviors and discounts any independent activities of the mind. Behavior theorists define learning as nothing more than the acquisition of new behavior based on environmental conditions.
Behaviorism refers to a psychological approach which emphasizes scientific and objective methods of investigation. The approach is only concerned with observable stimulus-response behaviors, and states all behaviors are . Behaviorist Learning Theory.
Behaviorism is an approach to psychology based on the proposition that behavior can be researched scientifically without recourse to inner mental states.
It is a form of materialism, denying any independent significance for mind. Its significance for psychological treatment has been profound, making it one of the pillars of pharmacological therapy.
Methodological behaviorism is a normative theory about the scientific conduct of psychology. It claims that psychology should concern itself with the behavior of organisms (human and nonhuman animals).
Psychology should not concern itself with mental states or events or with constructing internal information processing accounts of behavior.