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This study found that while some L1 strategies may transfer to the L2 writing processes, lower proficiency writers struggle in utilizing all strategies that could help their writing process in the L2. The results suggest several compensating strategies for dealing with L2 language issues and facilitating L1 composing process transfer.
Finally, suggestions for teachers are given so that teachers can help students discover and utilize existing strategies within their L1 and L2 composing processes as well as compensating strategies to improve their L2 writing.
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Review Of Literature Writing in a second language L2 is a challenging and complex process. While the first language L1 writing process includes producing content, drafting ideas, revising writing, choosing appropriate vocabulary, and editing text, writing in an L2 involves all of these elements jumbled with second language processing issues.
These were strategies such as taking more time, revising extensively, and seeking assistance. Lowering the standard strategies were used in order to complete the writing task within a reasonable amount of time and without excessive mental effort.
These were strategies such as reducing information, simplifying syntax, substituting lexical items, and ignoring reader concerns. The subjects in the study produced L2 papers that had less content than their L1 writing, but about equal quality to their L1 writing.
Overall, the L1 aided in keeping the standard. If the L1 was not used, we can surmise that the quality of Explain writing process composing essay would have been lower than it was and the standard would have had no checks and balances in place to keep it on a higher plane. These studies have found that the lower L2 proficiency writers benefited from composing in the L1 and then translating into the L2, a result that highlights the importance of using L1 composing strategies for lower L2 proficiency writers.
Jones and Tetroe did a study on the effect of L1 use during L2 writing. They found that the lower L2 proficiency writers who did not use their L1 were less effective in their planning.
The writers who did use their L1 produced more details during the planning stage of L2 writing. Furthermore, the L1 facilitated more abstract thought during planning.
Research Question Although we have some understanding of how lower proficiency writers cope with the demands of writing in an L2, our picture is still incomplete.
One area in which we still have little understanding is the degree to which L2 writers transfer their L1 composing process and strategies to their L2 writing. While it is given that L2 writing poses challenges that are unique from L1 writing and thus require unique strategies to deal with, it is reasonable to assume that parts of the composing process are similar or even the same in the L1 and the L2.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the degree to which lower L2 proficiency writers transfer their composing processes and strategies from L1 writing to L2 writing.
The question that this research sought to answer is: What L1 composing processes and strategies do lower L2 proficiency writers transfer to L2 writing?
Method Subjects Three native Japanese-speaking subjects were selected from an intensive English program in the U. They were chosen for their beginning English proficiency, their wider experience with writing in Japanese, and their limited experience with writing in English.
All three subjects were female and their ages ranged from 26 to 28 years old.
All three subjects were high school graduates, and two of the three subjects had also graduated from 2-year colleges. Each subject individually participated in two composing sessions in which the subject wrote an essay while thinking aloud. In the first session subjects wrote a Japanese essay and in the second session they wrote an English essay.
The sessions were video and audio taped for subsequent transcription, analysis, and comparison. Each session followed a similar pattern.
First the researcher explained the purpose of think-aloud protocols and gave a brief demonstration of the process by composing the first paragraph of an essay while thinking aloud.
The subject then practiced the protocol method while the researcher checked for quality and subject understanding of the process.
Subjects were then given an essay topic see Table 1. Japanese Essay Topic English Essay Topic When people need to complain about a product or poor service, some prefer to complain in writing and others prefer to complain in person.
Which way do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
When people move to another country, some of them decide to follow the customs of the new country. Others prefer to keep their own customs. Which one do you prefer? Support your answer with specific details.The Writing Process - Scores of composition instructors agree that writing should be taught as a recursive process, rather than a liner process, and they also agree that most writers employ certain writing strategies as they produce drafts.
Some students who need writing aid try to save their money by using a very cheap essay writing service. They find a low-cost website (which, of course, claims it is “professional” and “outstanding”) and hire cheap essay writers to do their papers.
This webpage is for Dr. Wheeler's literature students, and it offers introductory survey information concerning the literature of classical China, classical Rome, classical Greece, the Bible as Literature, medieval literature, Renaissance literature, and genre studies.
How many paragraphs in an IELTS Writing Task 2 Essay? Paragraphs are marked by the examiner in IELTS writing task 2. The criterion of Coherence and Cohesion, which is 25% of your writing marks, is about linking and paragraphing. The writing process is complicated, and often seems loosely defined.
According to Webster’s, writing is “ the way you use written words to express your ideas or opinions." Although we may think of it as little more than arranging letters and words on a page, a few moments' reflection reveals.
The 5-Step Writing Process: From Brainstorming to Publishing. Every writer follows his or her own writing process. Often the process is a routine that comes naturally and is .