In particular, interaction theorists posit that through the teacher expectancy effect, a teacher's expectations of a student's performance or achievement influence the actual performance or achievement of that student. When that expectation is low, students then react by finding other outlets for positive feedback or by accepting the expectations of the teacher as true; living down to their potential.
Identify the basic theories of media effects. Explain the uses of various media effects theories. Early media studies focused on the use of mass media in propaganda and persuasion. However, journalists and researchers soon looked to behavioral sciences to help figure out the effect of mass media and communications on society.
Scholars have developed many different approaches and theories to figure this out. Widespread fear that mass-media messages could outweigh other stabilizing cultural influences, such as family and community, led to what is known as the direct effects model of media studies. This model assumed that audiences passively accepted media messages and would exhibit predictable reactions in response to those messages.
For example, following the radio broadcast of War of the Worlds in which was a fictional news report of an alien invasionsome people panicked and believed the story to be true.
Conducted inthe study attempted to gauge the effects of political campaigns on voter choice. Researchers found that voters who consumed the most media had generally already decided for which candidate to vote, while undecided voters generally turned to family and community members to help them decide.
The study thus discredited the direct effects model and influenced a host of other media theories Hanson, These theories do not necessarily give an all-encompassing picture of media effects but rather work to illuminate a particular aspect of media influence. Published in andrespectively, the Gutenberg Galaxy and Understanding Media both traced the history of media technology and illustrated the ways these innovations had changed both individual behavior and the wider culture.
Understanding Media introduced a phrase that McLuhan has become known for: His bold statements about media gained McLuhan a great deal of attention as both his supporters and critics responded to his utopian views about the ways media could transform 20th-century life.
Although s-era utopians received these statements positively, social realists found them cause for scorn. Indeed, his work has received a great deal of attention in recent years. His supporters point to the hopes and achievements of digital technology and the utopian state that such innovations promise.
The current critique of McLuhan, however, is a bit more revealing of the state of modern media studies. Despite his lack of scholarly diligence, McLuhan had a great deal of influence on media studies.
Professors at Fordham University have formed an association of McLuhan-influenced scholars.
His work brought the idea of media effects into the public arena and created a new way for the public to consider the influence of media on culture Stille, Under this theory, the issues that receive the most attention from media become the issues that the public discusses, debates, and demands action on.
This means that the media is determining what issues and stories the public thinks about. Therefore, when the media fails to address a particular issue, it becomes marginalized in the minds of the public Hanson.
When critics claim that a particular media outlet has an agenda, they are drawing on this theory. Agendas can range from a perceived liberal bias in the news media to the propagation of cutthroat capitalist ethics in films.
For example, the agenda-setting theory explains such phenomena as the rise of public opinion against smoking. Before the mass media began taking an antismoking stance, smoking was considered a personal health issue. More recently, coverage of natural disasters has been prominent in the news.
Media scholars who specialize in agenda-setting research study the salience, or relative importance, of an issue and then attempt to understand what causes it to be important. The relative salience of an issue determines its place within the public agenda, which in turn influences public policy creation.
Uses and Gratifications Theory Practitioners of the uses and gratifications theory study the ways the public consumes media. This theory states that consumers use the media to satisfy specific needs or desires. For example, you may enjoy watching a show like Dancing With the Stars while simultaneously tweeting about it on Twitter with your friends.
Many people use the Internet to seek out entertainment, to find information, to communicate with like-minded individuals, or to pursue self-expression. Each of these uses gratifies a particular need, and the needs determine the way in which media is used. A typical uses and gratifications study explores the motives for media consumption and the consequences associated with use of that media.
In the case of Dancing With the Stars and Twitter, you are using the Internet as a way to be entertained and to connect with your friends.Symbolic Interactionism I.
Basic Concepts of Symbolic Interactionism a. Symbols i. The most important conceptual building block on which symbolic interactionists have based their analysis of human conduct is the concept of the symbol, or, as Mead called it, the significant symbol. 1. Significant Symbol a. Critics of this theory claim that symbolic interactionism neglects the macro level of social interpretation—the “big picture.” In other words, symbolic interactionists may miss the larger issues of society by focusing too closely on the “trees” rather than the “forest”.
The perspective also receives criticism for slighting the influence of social forces and institutions on individual interactions. Theories of Education. STUDY. PLAY. Is functionalism a structural or action theory?
Structural (General) Functionalist view of education. Education plays an important role in maintaining a value consensus and social solidarity (order), preventing anomie and benefitting the whole of society. Positive aspects of the interactionist theory of.
aim of this research is to apply the tenets of symbolic interactionism to see if the theory can contribute to understanding the root of conflict, why it arises, and what symbolic interaction might propose for repairing communication in times of conflict.
Interactionist theory is based on the assumption that people follow a particular way of living based on the inferences and conclusions drawn through social interaction.
In short, it is these interactionist attitudes that inspire or influence people to act in a particular way. Start studying Sociology: Chapter 6.
Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Search. In the first part of his video interview with Dalton Conley, what does Rios say are the functions of the Youth Control Complex? What are the distinguishing features of a symbolic interactionist theory of social.