GNU Free Documentation License Chapter 01 - The Crises of the Middle Ages The Middle Ages was a period of approximately one thousand years of history; generally accepted as spanning from the fall of the Roman Empire toward the end of the 5th century to the Protestant reformation in the 16th century. This period began with a demographic downturn at the end of the Roman imperial era, with European populations shrinking and many cities and rural estates abandoned.
Rome was a city of ancient ruins, and the Papal States were loosely administered, and vulnerable to external interference such as that of France, and later Spain. In the south, Sicily had for some time been under foreign domination, by the Arabs and then the Normans. Sicily had prospered for years during the Emirate of Sicily and later for two centuries during the Norman Kingdom and the Hohenstaufen Kingdombut had declined by the late Middle Ages.
In contrast, Northern and Central Italy had become far more prosperous, and it has been calculated that the region was among the richest of Europe.
The Crusades had built lasting trade links to the Levantand the Fourth Crusade had done much to destroy the Byzantine Roman Empire as a commercial rival to the Venetians and Genoese.
The main trade routes from the east passed through the Byzantine Empire or the Arab lands and onward to the ports of GenoaPisaand Venice. Luxury goods bought in the Levant, such as spices, dyes, and silks were imported to Italy and then resold throughout Europe. Moreover, the inland city-states profited from the rich agricultural land of the Po valley.
From France, Germany, and the Low Countries, through the medium of the Champagne fairsland and river trade routes brought goods such as woolwheatand precious metals into the region. The extensive trade that stretched from Egypt to the Baltic generated substantial surpluses that allowed significant investment in mining and agriculture.
Thus, while northern Italy was not richer in resources than many other parts of Europe, the level of development, stimulated by trade, allowed it to prosper. In particular, Florence became one of the wealthiest of the cities of Northern Italy, mainly due to its woolen textile production, developed under the supervision of its dominant trade guildthe Arte della Lana.
Wool was imported from Northern Europe and in the 16th century from Spain  and together with dyes from the east were used to make high quality textiles.
The Italian trade routes that covered the Mediterranean and beyond were also major conduits of culture and knowledge.
The recovery of lost Greek classics and, to a lesser extent, Arab advancements on them following the Crusader conquest of the Byzantine heartlandsrevitalized medieval philosophy in the Renaissance of the 12th centuryjust as the refugee Byzantine scholars who migrated to Italy during and following the Turkish conquest of the Byzantines between the 12th and 15th centuries were important in sparking the new linguistic studies of the Renaissance, in newly created academies in Florence and Venice.
Humanist scholars searched monastic libraries for ancient manuscripts and recovered Tacitus and other Latin authors. The rediscovery of Vitruvius meant that the architectural principles of Antiquity could be observed once more, and Renaissance artists were encouraged, in the atmosphere of humanist optimism, to excel the achievements of the Ancients, like Apellesof whom they read.
Thirteenth-century[ edit ] In the 13th century, much of Europe experienced strong economic growth. The trade routes of the Italian states linked with those of established Mediterranean ports and eventually the Hanseatic League of the Baltic and northern regions of Europe to create a network economy in Europe for the first time since the 4th century.
The city-states of Italy expanded greatly during this period and grew in power to become de facto fully independent of the Holy Roman Empire ; apart from the Kingdom of Naplesoutside powers kept their armies out of Italy.
During this period, the modern commercial infrastructure developed, with double-entry book-keepingjoint stock companiesan international banking system, a systematized foreign exchange marketinsuranceand government debt. The new mercantile governing class, who gained their position through financial skill, adapted to their purposes the feudal aristocratic model that had dominated Europe in the Middle Ages.
A feature of the High Middle Ages in Northern Italy was the rise of the urban communes which had broken from the control by bishops and local counts. In much of the region, the landed nobility was poorer than the urban patriarchs in the High Medieval money economy whose inflationary rise left land-holding aristocrats impoverished.
The increase in trade during the early Renaissance enhanced these characteristics.History-Social Science Standards The California Grade 10 Content Standards tell you what you need to learn and be able to do as you complete your course in World History, Culture, and Geography: The Modern World.
The course is designed to cover important events that have shaped the modern world, from the late s to the present. Historians debating the origins of the American Civil War focus on the reasons why seven Southern states declared their secession from the United States, why they united to form the Confederate States of America (simply known as the "Confederacy"), and why the North refused to let them go.
Another popular explanation for the Italian Renaissance is the thesis, first advanced by historian Hans Baron, that states that the primary impetus of the early Renaissance was the long-running series of wars between Florence and Milan.
Many devs from Obsidian will be able to draw from their personal history, but I can also take a crack at this one. The first chapter of Beneath a Starless Sky, my Long Read on Shacknews, goes into detail on the relationship between Black Isle, BioWare, and Interplay.
The fall of the Byzantine Empire gave rise to the Renaissance. Many Greek scholars and artists, who lived in Constantinople prior its fall, left the city and relocated to cities in Italy where they began to instruct the aristocracy, teaching history, geography, astronomy, mathematics, and the arts.
Florence,Italy the center of classical humanism for the first years, became a thriving commercial and financial center dominated by the prosperous middle class.
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|Renaissance in Europe: Meaning, Causes and Results of Renaissance||The chief problem is that of defining what is meant by the word Renaissance itself.|
|Origins of the American Civil War - Wikipedia||InItaly celebrated 50 years of Unification. The country was recognized as part of the other European Nations.|
The dual emphasis on material wealth and classical culture in Florence. led artists to revive classical themes.