Until the Civil War its economy was based not on trade and industrial production, which tend to spur city development, but on agriculture. Early Southern "urban centers" were villages and small towns, most located on the rivers by which cotton and tobacco were shipped out of the region.
Reconstruction in Practice Growth of Manufacturing American industry grew phenomenally in the first half of the nineteenth century. A series of tariffs enacted by Congress between and protected manufacturing, particularly textile milling, from foreign competition.
As manufacturing work sites were gradually relocated from the home and small workshop to the factory, the makeup of the labor force changed. The number of artisans and craftsmen declined, and reliance on semiskilled or unskilled workers, including women, to operate machines increased.
Just as in agriculture, advances in technology helped boost manufacturing production and increase efficiency. Indeed, the manufacture of such agricultural inventions as the reaper and steel plow became important sectors of the industrial economy.
Machines for spinning cotton into thread were developed in Great Britain in the eighteenth century, and how they were built and operated were closely guarded secrets.
Although the British prohibited the emigration of anyone with a knowledge of their design, Samuel Slater arrived in the United States from England with the plans in his head. Inhe established the first American cotton mill in Rhode Island.
Eli Whitney, already famous for the cotton gin, developed machine tools capable of producing parts so precisely that they were interchangeable. Interchangeable parts significantly increased industrial efficiency and cut labor costs. Charles Goodyear developed a process known as vulcanization that made natural rubber stronger The sewing machine was invented by Elias Howe and improved on a few years later by Isaac Singer.
Perhaps the most significant American invention of the first half of the nineteenth century was Samuel Morse's electric telegraph, which had its first practical application in Within twenty years, telegraph lines stretched from coast to coast and ushered in a communications revolution.
Combined with improvements in printing, the telegraph was a boon to journalism. The number of daily newspapers in the United States soared from eight in to nearly four hundred inand many sold for just a penny. New England's textile industry led the way in developing new forms of manufacturing.
The factory system as it evolved in the Northeast had three characteristics—the breakdown of an item's production into phases, the use of machines in all phases of production, and the division of labor.
Division of labor meant that a worker performed the task required by one phase of the production, no longer creating the entire product from start to finish. Inthe first factory in which spinning and weaving were performed by power machinery all under one roof was established in Waltham, Massachusetts.
In Lowell, which was planned and built as a model factory town inyoung women made up the majority of the workforce at the mills. The women lived in dormitories or boarding houses provided by the company and worked twelve hours a day, six days a week. Although the women were paid much less than the men, even when doing comparable work, their wages were enough to give them a measure of independence that their mothers and grandmothers never enjoyed.
The young women were not a permanent labor force in the mills, however. Most of them worked for only a few years and were gradually replaced by immigrants, mainly Irish men, in the s and s.
Textile manufacturing was the leading American industry before the Civil War and was concentrated in the Northeast because the region's rivers provided both water power and transportation. The cloth produced in New England mills was turned into shirts, pants, and other articles of clothing in smaller factories in New York and Philadelphia.
Proximity to raw materials influenced industrial development in other parts of the country. For example, Pittsburgh was a center of the iron industry because it was close to both ore and coal fields, while Cincinnati was an early hub for meatpacking in agricultural Ohio.
The development of the factory system produced tensions. Craftsmen were threatened by manufacturing's increasing reliance on machines and cheap labor, so they began to form trade unions and political parties in the s to protect their interests.
Although initially antagonistic toward unskilled workers, the craftsmen often discovered that they were on common ground over such issues as hours, wages, and working conditions. A shorter workday was the principal demand of the early trade unions, and most industries accepted it by the s, with the exception of the New England textile mills.Algae Algae, seaweed, nori, kaiso, agar agar, miuk, carrageen, Irish moss, spirulina, tecuilatl: vitamin rich edible gifts from the sea.
Consumed from prehistoric times forward, culinary applications depend upon place/period/people. The Lowell System was a labor production model invented by Francis Cabot Lowell in Massachusetts in the 19th century.
The system was designed so that every step of the manufacturing process was done under one roof and the work was performed by young adult women instead of children or young men.
The Lowell System, which is also sometimes called the Waltham-Lowell System. Economic growth is the increase in the inflation-adjusted market value of the goods and services produced by an economy over time. It is conventionally measured as the percent rate of increase in real gross domestic product, or real GDP..
Growth is usually calculated in real terms - i.e., inflation-adjusted terms – to eliminate the distorting effect of inflation . The factory system. New England's textile industry led the way in developing new forms of manufacturing.
The factory system as it evolved in the Northeast had three characteristics—the breakdown of an item's production into phases, the use of machines in . Capitalism: Capitalism is an economic system, dominant in the Western world since the breakup of feudalism, in which most means of production are privately held and production, prices, and incomes are determined by markets.
Learn more about the history of capitalism.
The rise of wage labor at the heart of the Industrial Revolution also exploited working people in new ways. The first strike among textile workers protesting wage and factory conditions occurred in and even the model mills of Lowell faced large strikes in the s..
Dramatically increased production, like that in the New England's textile mills, .